- The Laws of Science
- The Doctrine of Uniformitarianism
- The 1st Law of Thermodynamics
- The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
- The Four Fundamental Forces
- The Big Bang
- The Age of the Universe
- The Age of the Earth
- Star and Planet Formation
- The Origin of Life
- Macro and micro evolution
- Darwins Evidence
- Punctuated Equilibrium
- Isn't Evolution "Just a Theory?"
- Is It Really That Important to Teach Evolution?
- Intelligent Design
- Conclusions from Science
- Environmental Change and Species Extinction
- The Bible
- Objections to Christianity
- Suggested Reading
The Four Fundamental Forces
Facts of the Four Fundamental ForcesScientists have discovered four fundamental forces that are thought to be responsible for the operation of the universe. These four forces are known as the: weak force, strong force, electromagnetic force and gravitational force. According to modern scientific theory everything in the universe can be explained using a combination of these four forces.
The strong force and the weak force are thought to be responsible for holding individual atoms together. The nucleus of an atom contains one or more protons. Protons are positively charged. As every student knows positively charged particles repel each other. And yet atoms have a nucleus composed of many positively charged protons. So what keeps the nucleus of the atom from flying apart? Scientists have determined that it is a combination of the strong and weak forces that holds the atom together.
Electricity and magnetism were at one time thought to be two distinct forces. Quite by accident it was found that electricity and magnetism are actually related. It is now known that moving charges induce a magnetic field and that a moving magnetic field causes charges to flow. Flowing charges are commonly known as electrical current. These two forces are now combined together and known as the electromagnetic force. The electromagnetic force is responsible for almost all of the electrical tableion taking place in the world today.
Gravitational force is the force of attraction between two distinct masses. Gravitational force is the weakest of the four forces but it is thought to be universal in scope. Every object in the universe attracts every other object no matter how great the distance between them may be. Gravitational attraction is proportional to the mass of the two objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. It can be represented mathematically by the equation F=GM1M2/r2. G is known as the gravitational constant.
The strength of each of these fundamental forces has been measured repeatedly since their discovery. While the precision of the these measurements has been improved upon over the years the actual strength of each the forces has never been known to change. The scientific evidence indicates that the strength of these four forces haver never changed and never will. Scientists assume that during the Big Bang the magnitude of these four forces were different. Scientists know that if these four forces had the same strength during the Big Bang as they do now then the Big Bang could never have occurred.
Observations the Four Fundamental ForcesScientific evidence indicates that none of the four fundamental forces has ever changed. To assume otherwise is not science - it is make-believe. The current view of modern science that at some point in the past the strength of the four fundamental forces was somehow different is pseudo-science at best. Any of the four forces could be used as an example but I will use gravitational attraction as it is the most well-known.
Take a book and put it on a table. That book will not move. You can stare at the book for as long as you like and it will not move. It does not move because there are no unbalanced forces acting upon the book. The book is attracted to the table (and the table to the book) by the force of gravity.
Now suppose that a magician enters the room. He claims that he can levitate the book above the table. After a few magic words the book begins to rise. Would any intelligent person assume that this magician can do what no scientist could do? Would anyone ever assume that this magician could alter the force of gravity? Of course not! You would look for a string, a magnet, an air source or any other outside force that might cause this book to rise. One would never assume that the force of gravitational attraction had suddenly been changed. We all know from everyday experience that gravity is a constant and it does not change.
The force of gravitational attraction has been measured many times throughout history by a multitude of scientists in different locations all over the world. In every experiment ever conducted the magnitude of the gravitational force has been shown to remain constant. Everyday of our lives we live in world of constant gravitational attraction. If it were not so we would be hesitant to get out of bed in the morning. We would wonder: "Am I going to hit my head on the ceiling or be pulled to the floor?" No reasonable person entertains these thoughts because they know that the force of gravity is a constant. Based upon sound logical reasoning we all assume that the strength of gravity has never changed and it never will. This argument holds true for all of the four fundamental forces.
Scientists assume that these fundamental forces were somehow different during the Big Bang. Scientists know that if these four fundamental forces had the same strength then as they do now then the event known as the Big Bang could never have occurred. But this assumption goes directly against all of the experimental evidence. It seems ludicrous to me for scientists to spend so much time performing experiments only to draw conclusions that contradict the very evidence that they obtained. Science should be based on evidence. And just as in the book example, the scientific evidence actually indicates that there had to have been another, and currently unknown, force present during the creation of the physical universe. Due to the self-imposed limitations of science this force may never be identified using modern scientific methods.The Big Bang
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